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‘’Oral health-related quality of life in patients with temporomandibular disorders and effect of anxiety: a case-control study
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate oral health-related quality of life in patients with temporomandibular disorders which either have masticatory muscle pain, disc displacement with reduction or both and determine these disorders’ association with their anxiety. Materials and methods: The study consisted 150 patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders and 50 healthy patients as the control group. Patients were diagnosed, then divided into three diagnostic groups according to the DC/TMD (Diagnostic Criteria/Temporomandibular Disorders) Axis I form which were masticatory muscle pain(Group MP), disc displacement with reduction(Group DD) or both(Group MPDD). The participants filled the OHIP-14 (Oral Health Impact Profile-14) and GAD-7 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7) questionnaires for oral health-related quality of life and anxiety assessment, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann Whitney U Post-hoc paired comparison tests with Bonferroni correction and the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: 121 of the patients (60.25%) were female and 79(39.75%) were male with the age ranging from 18 to 68 (mean age: 37.32±13.62). Gender distributions, mean ages, educational and occupational status were similar among groups. The OHIP-14 global and domain scores and distribution of GAD-7 levels were significantly different among the groups(p<0.001). For psychological discomfort and disability domains, Group MPDD scored statistically the highest, followed by Group MP,DD and control(p<0.05). Correlation analyses showed that, within Group MPDD, there were possitive correlations between GAD-7 and all OHIP-14 scores(r=0.438,p<0.001). Conclusion: Oral health related quality of life is negatively affected by TMDs, and OHRQoL seem to decrease as the severity of anxiety increases. Therefore, physical conditions and anxiety of the TMD patients should be simultaneously considered for treatment and maintenance.